Reading time: 3 minutes
Time stamps

(00:01:50) – Introduktion af Toke

(00:06:05) – Begrebsafklaring af dishonesty, uærlighed og snyd og afgrænsning ift. egentlig kriminalitet

(00:09:32) – Feltafgræsning af Tokes forskning ift. Behavioural Ethics, mere begrebsafklaring og faktorer i snyd

 

(00:17:14) – Honesty/Humility infoskiller

 

(00:18:49) – Why Do We Lie, køn som faktor i uærlighed, REVISE-protokollen og anden forskning

 

(00:24:16) – Mekanismer til at mindske snyd og uærlighed

 

(00:39:40) – Forklaringsmodeller for hvorfor folk snyder

 

(00:50:50) – Tradeoffs i konkrete eksempler, folks forskellige tilgang til kontekster hvor de kan snyde og forskellige eksperimentelle forhold i dishonesty forskningen

 

(01:25:54) – Hvor kunne Toke godt tænke sig at bruge vores viden om uærlighed fra forskningen til at ændre på samfundet? 

 

(01:36:29) – Afrundning

 

(01:37:30) – Post-talk

 

Summary 

I episode 5 er vi taget hjem til Toke Reinholt Fosgaard, uddannet adfærdsøkonom og lektor ved Institut for Fødevare- og Ressourceøkonomi. Toke forsker bl.a. i dishonesty, et forskningsområde som er enormt interessant fra et adfærdsperspektiv.

Vi taler om hvem der snyder, delvist hvordan de snyder og så også hvorfor de snyder – og de forskellige forklaringsmodeller der eksisterer herfor. Vi kobler det også sammen med hvad vi kan gøre ved det. Vi tager undervejs temperaturen på hvor godt forskningen forklarer de forskellige elementer og diskuterer hvordan eksperimenter kan tage højde for faktorerer som fx. payoff-størrelse, viden om uærlige strategier og biases i sampling af forsøgspersoner.

God fornøjelse!

Cap Notes

Eksempelvise tal på ‘petty crime’ er at de amerikanske skattemyndigheder, estimerer at borgerne i USA årligt snyder den amerikanske stat for op imod 1,36 trillioner danske kroner (dvs. 1.360.000.000.000 DKK) jf. Mazar & Plumley (2007).

Imens at det estimeres at der årligt i USA er tabt fortjeneste i detailhandlen på 266.943.600 danske kroner grundet mindre butikstyverier af enkeltpersoner (Ayal, Hochman & Ariely, 2016).

Namedropping
  • Robert J. Weber
  • CPTED – Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
  • Ingo Zettler
  • HEXACO
  • Dan Ariely
  • Lisa Shu
  • Nina Mazaz
  • Francesca Gino
  • Max Bazerman
  • TMS – Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Mike Norton
  • Gary Becker

Referencer

Mazar, M. J. & Plumley, A. H. (2007). Understanding the tax gap. National Tax Journal, 60, 569-576.

Azar, O. H., Yosef, S., & Bar-Eli, M. (2013). Do customers return excessive change in a restaurant?: A field experiment on dishonesty. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 93, 219-226.

Shu, L. L., Mazar, N., Gino, F., Ariely, D. & Bazerman, M. H. (2012). Signing at the beginning makes ethics salient and decreases dishonest self-reports in comparison to signing at the end. Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, 109(38), 15197-15200.

Ayal, S., Francesca, G., Barkan, R. & Ariely, D. (2015). Three Principles to REVISE People’s Unethical Behavior. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(6), 738-741.

Pruckner, G.J. and Sausgruber, R. (2013), HONESTY ON THE STREETS: A FIELD STUDY ON NEWSPAPER PURCHASING. Journal of the European Economic Association, 11: 661-679

Ariely, D. (2012). The (Honest) Truth About Dishonesty: How We Lie To Everyone, Especially Ourselves. London: Harper Collins.

Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. Harper Collins.

Kristal, A. S., Whillans, A. V., Bazerman, M. H., Gino, F., Shu, L. L., Mazar, N., & Ariely, D. (2020). Signing at the beginning versus at the end does not decrease dishonesty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(13), 7103-7107.

Shu, Lisa & Mazar, Nina & Gino, Francesca & Bazerman, Max. (2011). When to Sign on the Dotted Line? Signing First Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-Reports. Harvard Business School: Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit Working Paper Series. 10.2139/ssrn.1837611.

Tenbrunsel, A. E., Diekmann, K. A., Wade-Benzoni, K. A. & Bazerman M. H. (2010). The Ethical Mirage: A Temporal Explanation As To Why We Are Not as Ethical As We Think we Are. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30 (2010), 153-173.

Sezer, O., Gino, F. & Bazerman, M. H. (2015). Ethical Blind Spots: Explaining Unintentional Unethical Behaviour. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2015 (6), 77-81.

Tyler, J. M., Feldman, R. S., Reichert, A. (2006). The Price of Deceptive Behavior: Disliking and lying to people who lie to us. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 69-77.

Zhong, C., Bohns, V. K. & Gino, F. (2010). Good Lamps Are The Best Police: Darkness Increases Dishonesty and Self-Interested Behavior. Psychological Science, 21 (3), 311-314.

Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The Dishonesty of Honest People: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45, 633-644.

Jacobsen, C., Fosgaard, T. R., & Pascual‐Ezama, D. (2018). Why do we lie? A practical guide to the dishonesty literature. Journal of Economic Surveys, 32(2), 357-387.

Gazzaniga, M. S. (2000). Cerebral specialization and interhemispheric communication: does the corpus callosum enable the human condition?. Brain, 123 (7), 1293-1326.

Becker, G.S. (1968) Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76(2): 169.

Shalvi, S., Dana, J., Handgraaf, M. J. J. & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2011). Justified ethicality:Observing desired counterfactuals modifies ethical perceptions and behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115, 181-190.

Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt, Jacobsen, C. & Street, C. (2020). The heterogenous processes of cheating: attention evidence from two eye tracking experiments. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

 Mischel, Walter; Ebbesen, Ebbe B. (1970). “Attention In Delay Of Gratification”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 16 (2): 329–33

Schumacher, G. & Zettler, I (2019). House of Cards or West Wing? Self-reported HEXACO Traits of Danish Politicians. Personality and Individual Differences, 141.

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